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Fourierism manifested itself "in the middle of the 19th century (where) literally hundreds of communes (phalansteries) were founded on fourierist principles in France, N. The UK government's Factory Act of 1833 attempted to reduce the hours adults and children worked in the textile industry.A fifteen-hour working day was to start at 5.30 a.m. Children of nine to thirteen years could work no more than 9 hours, and workers of a younger age were prohibited.
According to Sheldon Richman, "[i]n the 19th and early 20th centuries, 'socialism' did not exclusively mean collective or government ownership of the means or production but was an umbrella term for anyone who believed labour was cheated out of its natural product under historical capitalism", the use of the words "socialism" or "communism" related to the perceived attitude toward religion in a given culture.
Prominent leaders in the movement also called for a more equitable distribution of income and better living conditions for the working classes.
The very first trade unions and consumers’ cooperative societies also emerged in the hinterland of the Chartist movement, as a way of bolstering the fight for these demands".
In the first half of the 20th century, the Soviet Union and the communist parties of the Third International around the world mainly came to represent socialism in terms of the Soviet model of economic development and the creation of centrally planned economies directed by a state that owns all the means of production, although other trends condemned what they saw as the lack of democracy.
In the United Kingdom, Herbert Morrison said that "socialism is what the Labour government does" whereas Aneurin Bevan argued that socialism requires that the "main streams of economic activity are brought under public direction", with an economic plan and workers' democracy.